01. In the vacuum electromagnetic waves propagate.

02. Let’s use Cartesian coordinates.

03. The simplest case corresponds to a plane wave propagating in the x direction.

04. In this case are valid solutions of the wavew equation the sine function, cosine function and all both real and complex linear combinations of these two.

05. There is a simple complex solution, exponential, which by the equation of De Moivre has its real part cosine and imaginary part sine.

06. The electromagnetic field is a vector. A mathematical solution is physically valid only when it corresponds to vectors defined in space.

07. We then search a vector field satisfying the Maxwell equations, corresponding to the simplest complex solution, previously mentioned.

08. The field named DISPLACEMENT, symbol D, meets all the requirements. His real component (cosine) is the polarization P , which operates in the direction of propagation and consequently is longitudinal. The imaginary component (sine) is the electric field E , perpendicular to the propagation direction and is consequently cross. The displacement D operates as a rotary vector when we analyze their behavior along the propagation direction. This property is not merely anecdotal, as it is closely related to the spin of radiation.

09. Calculating the divergence of complex displacement get a charge density, present at each point in the region of propagation. The charge density is expressed by a sine function, whose nodes are the borders which changes the sign of the charge. An entire cycle contains a pair of opposed charges, both of the same value, so that the entire cycle is electrically neutral. Obviously, this is charge without rest mass. That means not correspond to electrons or positrons, or other types of particles having rest mass. The vacuum is polarized to enable the spread. These massless charges disappear when polarization is finished.

10. In the calculating of rotor, the longitudinal component provides a pair of opposite vectors with equal modules, any one cancel each other. And the net result is given only by the transverse component, ie the E field. For that reason everything is consistent with Maxwell’s equations that, to mutually link the rotors of electric field and magnetic field, result the equation of D’Alembert, denominated wave equation in physics.

11. In the coordinate system of the observer, the charge density moves in vacuum with speed equal to C, contributing a longitudinal component to the total current density. In the neighborhood of a point, can be defined an infinitesimal surface and calculate the magnetic flux. The current components flow through the edge of the environment. This allows application of Ampere’s theorem in its infinitesimal version and calculate the propagation inductance, which is equal at all points of the region of propagation. The magnetic permeability, multiplied by the wavelength divided by 2 pi is equal to the inductance of the spread, ie

L = (1/2π) μ λ

12. The magnetic field energy can be calculated by two methods. One is integrated into the volume the density of magnetic energy, gunships usual. Another is to calculate the energy as a function of current and inductance, similar to what is done in electrical engineering. Obviously both methods should give the same result. Equating gives an equation whose only unknown is the wavefront surface . To resolve obtain a perfectly certain finite area. His expression is

S = (1/16π) λ²

(Wavelength squared, divided by 16 pi)

13. The spread usually consists of many successive cycles traveling from one place to another. The minimum number of cycles that the spread can have is one. This finite wave front previously mentioned, there is in the region of space covered by the cycle. The volume of the region is equal to the wave front surface multiplied by the wavelength, ie

V = (1/16π) λ³

14. Each complete elementary cycle, with its finite wavefront and finite volume, is a photon. Ie the photon has a couple of massless charges, which occupy a finite volume, with a finite wave front. When many photons involved in the propagation, the set means a big wave with a large wavefront constituted by moles, as Einstein imagined when sought a quantum interpretation of radiation.

15. The pair of elementary charges in cycle has a stable geometry, as the spread advances in vacuum without being disturbed by additional fields. Two feced charges, with stable geometry, form a capacitor. The role of a common capacitor plate is kept stable geometry of the charge distribution, thus actually not serve another purpose. We can calculate photon’s capacity in analogous way to electrical engineering calculations. The result is

C = (1/2π) ε λ

16. In a circuit having the inductance and capacitance previously expressed, the resonance frequency equals the frequency of the wave, as it should be.

17. The electric field energy is calculated by two methods. One is integrated (into the volume) energy density, as is usually done. The other method is to calculate the capacitive energy as is done in electrical engineering. By matching the results obtain Planck’s formula for photon energy E = h ν , where h appears as a combination of electromagnetic constants.

18. At each point of the photon volume is a rotating infinitesimal charge. Rotation produces the same effect as a current crossing a infinitesimal circumference and generates the magnetic field at that point. For that reason the energy of the magnetic field has all the properties of rotational energy. On that basis you can calculate the infinitesimal moment of inertia, the infinitesimal mass involved and the infinitesimal amount of angular momentum at each point. Integrating across the photon volume, photon mass and the total value of distributed angular momentum are obtained. The total value is called spin. At each point of the photonic volume is an infinitesimal gyroscope. The entire photon is comparable with wagon full of very small gyroscopes, all having their axes transverse to the carriage path. Although each small gyroscope provides some angular momentum, the whole wagon travels directly and does not rotate. Something similar happens in the photon. Each point of photon volume has a tiny gyroscope, that remains fixed the direction of movement, while is not disturbed by additional fields. Without something extra that deviates, radiation is required to travel in a straight line. The same theorems mathematically determine the quantum properties, physically determine the rectilinear propagation in a vacuum.

19. Another theorem arises analyzing the collision of two photons to create an electron-positron pair. Results in the ratio of the electron charge and the charge contained in each half cycle of the photon. As a corollary, determines the internal structures of the electron and the positron, which are distinct and differ in the proportions of kinetic and potential energies within each. The ratio between the two types of energy is closely linked with the stability of the partícle. The ratios are different and indicate that the positron is less stable than the electron (the antimatter is less stable than matter). The previously mentioned charges ratio, symbolized γ (gamma), it is expressed as follows.

γ = e/Q = (1/2) [-3 + square root of 13]

20. The fine structure constant α (alpha) is expressed as follows.

α = (1 / 4π) γ²

(Gamma squared divided by 4 pi)

Thist is an irrational number that has the following value.

α = 0.007295112456675778672162576823729 …

This value is slightly different from that accepted by global consensus.

21. This development, with its visible results, can answer the main question: Can an electric charge and current exist on vacuum? Yes, they can and are indispensable. Whoever attempts to deny it, will remain without understanding the fundamentals of the physical world.

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My website goes over a lot of the same topics as yours and I think

we could greatly benefit from each other. If you’re interested feel free to send me an e-mail. I look forward to hearing from you! Excellent blog by the way!

What’s the point? He is called the Man who invented the Modern Age, the 20th c. but obviously he started inventing at 20, in 1876…X-rays that was Tesla, Radio, same…I just don’t like it when others get the credit, but of course others contributed I agree, then TESLA finalizes everything they start & cannot bring to fruition…He had the knack for this, finishing anybody’s original projects, going all the way back to the Greeks. ]]>

on scribed ]]>

and while i was waiting at the airport for a flight, the TV was showing an aeroplane creating two lines behind it as it happily flew around the city i was leaving.

Only the happy face failed on the aircraft.

Predictive Programming, me thinks.

All quite normal, nothing to see here, please move on.

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