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Electric Universe or Was Tesla right again?

Watched very good documentary THUNDERBOLTS OF THE GODS by David Talbott, Wallace Thornhill: Electric Universe. It challenges many of today’s theories of cosmology. The nature of sun, galaxies, comets, the whole universe we thought of it today within well adopted concepts as big bang, gravity, fusion, …is shown in new light. Universe as electric universe.

I like the concept of electric universe due to two reasons: firstly – it doubts about current concepts and it might contribute to shift of old paradigms which to some extent limit our further thoughts of nature of our world; and secondly – to me as great admirer of Nikola Tesla, the concept is very similar to what Nikola Tesla already proposed more than 100 years ago: Electromagnetic energy fills all space; gravity is not the most important force in universe; time is just mere man-made reference (Motion through space produces the “illusion of time”; aether (plasma) which feels the whole universe (ultimate medium – without it there wouldn’t be any electromagnetic force), … On the other hand the whole concept of aether which is necessary for EM force is in Eastern philosophy named  Akasha, 5th physical element which can not be percived,  essence of all things, the source that everything exists. So maybe the shift in paradigm could bring closer science and old philosophical knowledge, and narrow the gap between dualistic and holistic thinking.

I am always amazed how genius Tesla was. How different world would be today if they were listened him more. And his interest in vedic phylosophy  is deeply visible in his brilliant work. As early as 1891 Tesla described the universe as a kinetic system filled with energy which could be harnessed at any location. His concepts during the following years were greatly influenced by the teachings of Swami Vivekananda.


 The “Electric Universe” is a hypothesis, a new way of interpreting scientific data in the light of new knowledge about plasma and electricity. In this interpretation, gravity plays a secondary role behind the far more powerful electric force, and electrified plasma in the laboratory provides a model for comprehending newly-discovered phenomena in space.

Tesla’s Dynamic theory of gravity

Theory structure

Tesla said he had fully developed his Dynamic Theory of Gravity and “worked it out in all the details“. This aether-based theory, which initially was developed between 1893-94, explained gravity and directly linked it to electromagnetic phenomena, explaining also that the sun and all stars emit “primary solar rays” which in turn produce secondary radiations. Tesla’s theory states that the phenomena produced by electromagnetic forces is the most important phenomenon in the universe. According to portions from his theory, mechanical motions are universally a result of electromagnetic force acting upon and through media. Unfortunately, no mathematical details of the theory have officially surfaced.

Tesla demonstrated that all bodies have electrical content and as such, are all moving charges as our earth hurls through space at incredible speed (hence ‘dynamic’). He demonstrated, through the use of his particular evacuated tubes and high voltage coils powered by specifically designed high frequency alternators, how earth emanates “microwaves” and how it behaves as a charged sphere. Based on these discoveries and their confirmation at Colorado Springs, he developed and tested his first electromagnetic machine that could fly “devoid of sustaining wings, propellers or gas bags“.

Non-hertzian waves

In the Responses to Questions ( on December 20, 2000 of various authors and researchers concerning Dr. Tesla, it is reported that Tesla’s concept of “electromagnetic momentum” appears to have been gleamed from Maxwell’s original work (ed. the equation usually referred to as the Maxwell’s equation in use today were written by Oliver Heaviside and could rightly then be called the “Maxwell-Heaviside equations”). Tesla was familiar with the quaternion notation in Maxwell’s work and often referred to Maxwell’s books. Tesla also conveyed the notion of J. Zenneck’s longitudal ground wave as the non-Hertzian wave he was talking about. These are now known today in microwave field theory as “surface waves”. Tesla calls attention to a “field of force” being indispensable for explaining the movements of astronomical objects (a concept that fields model the phenomenon more precisely). Heaviside himself offered “a gravitational and electromagnetic analogy (” (The Electrician, 1893). Others have continued this line of work. Oleg D. Jefimenko wrote the book “Causality, electromagnetic induction, and gravitation : a different approach to the theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields” (Star City [West Virginia] : Electret Scientific Co., c1992. ISBN 0917406095 ).

Tesla published a prepared statement on his 81st birthday (July 10, 1937) critiquing Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. The following is a portion of that statement:

… Supposing that the bodies act upon the surrounding space causing curving of the same, it appears to my simple mind that the curved spaces must react on the bodies, and producing the opposite effects, straightening out the curves. Since action and reaction are coexistent, it follows that the supposed curvature of space is entirely impossible – But even if it existed it would not explain the motions of the bodies as observed. Only the existence of a field of force can account for the motions of the bodies as observed, and its assumption dispenses with space curvature. All literature on this subject is futile and destined to oblivion. So are all attempts to explain the workings of the universe without recognizing the existence of the ether and the indispensable function it plays in the phenomena.
My second discovery was of a physical truth of the greatest importance. As I have searched the entire scientific records in more than a half dozen languages for a long time without finding the least anticipation, I consider myself the original discoverer of this truth, which can be expressed by the statement: There is no energy in matter other than that received from the environment.” — Nikola Tesla

While this statement asserted that Tesla had “worked out a dynamic theory of gravity” that he soon hoped to give to the world, he reportedly died before he publicized the details. There is still a halo of mystery around his death – even the exact date is not certain. It is speculated that his death may have been caused by too much “pressure” by agents in order to extract and obtain the secret documents regarding this theory.

Unfortunately few details were publicly revealed by Tesla about his theory. Available details argument against space being curved by gravitational effects, which leads some to believe Tesla failed to understand Einstein’s theory is not about curved space at all, but curved space-time. However, there is disagreement about Tesla’s exact understanding of Einstein’s theories; Tesla was actively conducting tangible experiments during the time of Einstein’s theoretical research. He underlined that time was a mere man-made reference used for convenience and as such the idea of a “curved space-time” was delusional, hence there was no basis for the Relativistic “space-time” binomium concept.

Tesla’s aether concept

It is important to correctly comprehend Tesla’s unique aether concept. The theory refers to an aether, but Tesla’s aether is not analogous to classical aether theories. John J. O’Neill stated,

Long ago he recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, or tenuity beyond conception, filling all space, the Akasha or luminiferous ether, acted upon by the life giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never ending cycles all things and phenomena. The primary substance, thrown into infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance.” (Grotz, 1997)

Tesla’s aether is in fact a medium, “a perfect fluid” that wets everything in which are immersed “independent carriers“. It behaves as a solid to light (high frequency) and is transparent to matter, while it’s effects can be felt through inertia. Tesla demonstrated how this aether could be “polarized” and made “rigid” through a particular high frequency alternator and single terminal coil (ex. 1892 lecture in London) and 2 metal plates which he “suspended” in the air making the space between them rigid “privately” on one another (ed. the tesla effect). In 1894, Tesla invented a special bulb (which was the ultimate result of his research in vacuum tubes; the unipolar “targetless” bulb) which augmented this technology to create “tubes of force” which could be used for motive power (what Tesla later cited as “veritable ropes of air“).


This theory is a logical extension of the rotating magnetic field model. According to the Swami Vivekananda,

the Vedantic Prana and Akasha and the Kalpas, which according to [Tesla was] the only theories modern science can entertain [… he] thinks he can demonstrate that mathematically that force and matter are reducible to potential energy” (Grotz, 1997)

Tesla electromagnetics are composed of potentials and their corresponding motion. This potential’s motion causes in the surrounding medium an equivalent and opposite effect (determining the positive and negative character of the medium). Some elements of the theory may include:

  • All ponderable bodies are constantly in motion in through space.
    • Absence of a medium would result in no electromagnetic forces (the space-vacuum fabric is a medium, the aether (the ultimate medium))
    • Ponderable bodies and other media filling space all possess a dielectric level.
    • Motion through space produces the “illusion of time”.
    • Mechanical effects are produced by electromagnetic forces acting through media (i.e., momentum and inertia is electromagnetic in nature; Energy is force over time)
    • A media exposed to resonant vibrations of electromagnetic force interact.
  • Electromagnetic energy fills all space (referred to as radiant energy).
    • Electromagnetic force is a phenomenon produced through the medium in space (eg., the result of the medium acting upon ponderable matter).
    • Modulating Wideband frequencies of electromagnetic phenomenon permeate through all media (akin to spread spectrums).
    • Self-regenerative hetrodyning electromagnetic fields condense through the medium in space.
    • Electromagnetic potentials arrange themselves in groups according to the medium’s polarization and the medium’s dielectric resistance.
    • Electromagnetic fields interact and produce rotating fields.
    • Electromagnetic entropy returns energy to potentials.
    • Electromagnetic potentials of high frequency produce: [a] lower environmental interaction, [b] uniform movement without rotation through space-time, and [c] electromagnetic saturation [i.e., plasmas]
    • Stationary low frequency electromagnetics behave as waves.
  • Medium’s electromagnetic fields creates attractive forces from negative polarity [or what is commonly referred to as “gravity“].

Tesla never referred to “space-time” directly, referring instead to the concept of the “primary substance”. He also never used this relativistic “twin” term. He considered time as a mere man-made “measure” of the rate at which events occur such as a distance travelled (in miles or kms) in a certain period of time, for a frame of reference. He considered the “curving” of space to be absurd (putting it in gentle terms) saying that if a moving body curved space the “equal and opposite” reaction of space on the body would “straighten space back out“.

Contrasts and knowledge

Tesla’s theory put him in direct contrast with the re-emerging Relativity theory, which is that energy does not directly originate from matter or vice versa, but that matter behaves as a medium for forces to act upon or to act through, and that without matter there is no Energy (nor Force) and vice versa (he said a body without force is like a body without a mind).

All this energy (sometimes viewed as “Zero Point Energy“) comes from the environment (through aether or the “medium”) and reverts back to the environment giving life to matter, forming a “closed circuit” through one way or the other (being “accessed” more efficiently or less based on the methodology). It is omnipresent, day or night, and is “re-emitted” by every star in our universe naturally including our sun. Tesla knew every “ponderable body” had an electrical content, and as such, proportionally interacted with the surrounding aether. The earth is like a charged sphere hurling through space (thus a current, hence magnetic field), around the sun powered by it’s primary rays (and giant electric currents along “frozen magnetic lines of force”, according to the works of Hannes Alfven ( in Lehrner’s “The Big Bang Never Happened” ISBN 067974049X ).

The observed effects of solar flares through earth’s magnetic field, and auroras at the poles, also manifest themselves through high voltage distribution overloads in certain areas due to these high energy/radiation “bursts”. As the Earth rotates and revolves around the sun at great speed, a portion of the aether is polarized (is “rigidified” by “rapidly varying electrostatic forces” emitted by the Earth) and carried along by the electric field of the Earthwhich decreases with the inverse square of the distance from the Earth. Tesla measured these electrostatic emissions with a particular partially evacuated tube which he could orient as desired and watch the wave patterns change shape.

Here come into play the “tubes of force” (Faraday, Lord Kelvin, Maxwell, J.J. Thomson) that – due to independent charge ratio depending on density and electrical content – are absorbed by bodies and impart a downward momentum (thus “gravity” is a downward push, not a pull) creating the sensation of a “gravity field“. It is the interaction between the electrical content of every “dynamic” body with aether carriers (comprising tubes of force) that results in momentum being imparted to a body (an electromagnetic to mechanical interconversion). It is an endless “circuit loop” that continuously keeps everything in motion in our universe (Tesla’s “Wheelwork of Nature”) which if understood can give the ability to achieve “any desired result“.

This “carrier exchange” is constant, but can be artificially manipulated using high voltage direct current brush and appropriate high voltage high frequency alternating current potentials in order to block or reduce it. Every moving body in our universe transverses this omni-directional radiation and interacts with the aether since all media have electrical content. The important fact is that the aether can convert the weaker, mechanical force, to the much stronger electromagnetic one. This holds the key to increasing “work” over a period of time. This exchange is constantly occurring in our universe and is it’s unlimited “prime mover“.


And nice song of Muse – Black Holes and Revelations

July 31, 2008 Posted by | books, Documentary, Music, Science | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 11 Comments

Why some brains follow the rules and others don’t?

Have just read the article “Why the brain follows the rules? (see it bellow) and what really intrigued me was not exactly the question why the brain follows the rules but why  there are some differences among people…or say it differently….Why some brains don’t follow the rules?

It’s brought me back to the question of psychology of power   as influence of personal/genetic traits and the influence of enviroment(omnipresent corporate culture which declare itself as a person but without human traits) which shapes people’s mind through language/values and perception.

And here Niccolò Machiavelli comes on stage. To helps us figure out either opportunistic and selfish behaviour is indeed result of someones brain (dis)function or it could be simply acquired during socialization. The field is well studied but with no final answer. So i gonna speculate as well. Cos i did  extensive study for myself  to catch just the tail of the problem. The whole body of the problem is yet to be researched.

Take a minute to find your score on Machiavelli personality test . It’s fun and while doing it you can get pretty clear idea what it’s all about (and what i am talking in the rest of the post). To be socially successful in this world, you would mark the answers which are not really close to your true nature but you would definitely pass better at work or on social situation (not friends) if you behave lake that. Thinking about that is already opportunistic. And here is evident the whole problem. It is kind of adaption mechanism or survival strategy. But still…to which extent? We all do it. But than, why some of them can easily take the last exit of human morality and try to dominate other people. We all don’t do it. That’s clear. Some of us have different goals than money and dominance. Beauty of every moment, for example.

 And going further, for example, I can’t simply believe that all people from “elite” families are genetically  so the same that they follow the same Machiavelli’s rules. They’ve been taught, i guess. But the range of people who came to the position of manipulating and are not part of taught elite, could be so diverse. From psychopath traits to the ones who simply found out by chance how to come to the position of dominance and manipulation. Although they were just good, nice , ordinary people before. Did they hide those traits or did the system change them? As one research showed the level of serotonin rises as person comes to the higher position. The Standford experiment is great example for that. But unfortunately, the end result is  the same as it would be inherited case. Brain is very plastic, seems so. And it changes a lot during the life.

As some researches show, machiavellism and primary psychopathic traits are highly correlated, but the question remains: Was it there before or was it learned…Some researches show that correlation doesn’t exist.  That Machiavellians are just well adopted people with high survival instincts. Is it possible that their social status and wealth diminishes the treat of punishment and that’s why their brain shows all signs of disinhibition which is characteristic for psychopaths?

See bellow the traits of psychopaths, machievillists, correlations and what scans of the brain say about. One is sure. Orbitofrontal cortex is playing a great role. Was it that kind at their birth or was it changed during the life time as adaption strategy, is the real question to be answered.

The traits of  PSYCHOPATHS(Cleckley, 1941; ):

PRIMARY PSYCHOPATHS do not respond to punishment, apprehension, stress, or disapproval. They seem to be able to inhibit their antisocial impulses most of the time, not because of conscience, but because it suits their purpose at the time. Words do not seem to have the same meaning for them as they do for us. In fact, it’s unclear if they even grasp the meaning of their own words, a condition that Cleckley called “semantic aphasia.” They don’t follow any life plan, and it seems as if they are incapable of experiencing any genuine emotion.

SECONDARY PSYCHOPATHS are risk-takers, but are also more likely to be stress-reactive, worriers, and guilt-prone. They expose themselves to more stress than the average person, but they are as vulnerable to stress as the average person. (This suggests that they are not “fully psychopathic.” This may be due to distinctive genetic variations.)

They are daring, adventurous, unconventional people who began playing by their own rules early in life. They are strongly driven by a desire to escape or avoid pain, but are unable to resist temptation. As their anxiety increases toward some forbidden object, so does their attraction to it. They live their lives by the lure of temptation. Both primary and secondary psychopaths can be subdivided into:

DISTEMPERED PSYCHOPATHS are the kind that seem to fly into a rage or frenzy more easily and more often than other subtypes. Their frenzy will resemble an epileptic fit. They are also usually men with incredibly strong sex drives, capable of astonishing feats of sexual energy, and seemingly obsessed by sexual urges during a large part of their waking lives. Powerful cravings also seem to characterize them, as in drug addiction, kleptomania, pedophilia, any illicit or illegal indulgence. They like the endorphin “high” or “rush” off of excitement and risk-taking. The serial-rapist-murderer known as the Boston Strangler was such a psychopath.

CHARISMATIC PSYCHOPATHS are charming, attractive liars. They are usually gifted at some talent or another, and they use it to their advantage in manipulating others. They are usually fast-talkers, and possess an almost demonic ability to persuade others out of everything they own, even their lives. Leaders of religious sects or cults, for example, might be psychopaths if they lead their followers to their deaths. This subtype often comes to believe in their own fictions. They are irresistible.

Sociopaths have always existed in varying form and to various degrees. They have been known by various titles. They have been studied using various techniques, and through the years their ailment has been blamed on various causes. But one thing never varies: all sociopaths share three common characteristics. They are all very egocentric individuals with no empathy for others, and they are incapable of feeling remorse or guilt.  [The Sociopath Rebecca Horton (April 1999)]

 Bellow are some explanations what mechiavellisem means psychologicaly and MRI (brain scans) how it can be explained neurologically:

 Machiavellian intelligence

The term refers to Niccolò Machiavelli’s The Prince (1513) and to the hypothesis that the techniques which lead to certain kinds of political success within large social groups are also applicable within smaller groups, including the family-unit. The term “everyday politics” was later introduced in reference to these various methods. These arguments are based on research by primatologists such as Nicholas Humphrey (1975).

Machiavelli’s teachings continue to influence all levels of Western society. Take for example a situation presented by Michael Walzer: An elementary school needs a new roof. Simple as it may seem, much of Machiavelli’s theories will be put to use. Money from a budget must be allocated by officials, each of them lobbying for what they think is most important. Even then, if money is allocated towards a new roof, a construction contractor must be hired. One must consistently consider, What is behind this lower estimate for the construction work? Why does this company want this small contract? Many questions must be asked in order to identify deception. In the end, all anyone can ever do is “strive to make an informed decision based on the best evidence, and then act accordingly, even though the best evidence will never guarantee certainty.”

Machiavellian intelligence may be demonstrated by behaviors including:

  • Making and breaking alliances
  • making and breaking promises
  • making and breaking rules;
  • lying and truth-telling;
  • blaming and forgiveness;
  • misleading and misdirection.


Machiavellianism is the term that some social and personality psychologists use to describe a person’s tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain. The concept is named after Renaissance diplomat and writer Niccolò Machiavelli, who wrote Il Principe(The Prince). In the 1960s Richard Christie and Florence L. Geis developed a test for measuring a person’s level of Machiavellianism. This eventually became the MACH-IV test, a twenty-statement personality survey that is now the standard self-assessment tool of Machiavellianism. People scoring above 60 out of 100 on the MACH-IV are considered high Machs; that is, they endorsed statements such as, “Never tell anyone the real reason you did something unless it is useful to do so,” (No. 1) but not ones like, “Most people are basically good and kind” (No. 4). People scoring below 60 out of 100 on the MACH-IV are considered low Machs; they tend to believe, “There is no excuse for lying to someone else,” (No. 7) and, “Most people who get ahead in the world lead clean, moral lives” (No. 11). In a series of studies undertaken by Christie and Geis and Geis’s graduate assistant David Berger, the notion of machiavellianism was experimentally verified.

High Machs

High Machs tend to take a more detached, calculating approach in their interaction with other people. In terms of Big Five personality traits, Machiavellians tend to be low on agreeableness and high in conscientiousness.

Scholars and researchers have attempted to find a correlation between Machiavellianismand narcissistic personality disorder and psychopathy. It could be understood that psychopaths and sociopathshave a similar disposition that could be identified with Machiavellianism, for sociopaths are known for manipulation and cunning. Psychopaths, however, generally have difficulty realizing or understanding the concepts of right and wrong, and tend not to have much regard for consequences. On the other hand, High Machs perhaps more or less view as Machiavelli did, and simply believe that while right and wrong have reality (at least to most people), that it is impractical to be ethical all the time, and that perhaps there is a difference between outright deception or exploitation, and subtle spins on the truth for the sake of what is seen (subjectively) as a more important cause that is not recognized by both parties. However, it may be difficult to distinguish between the two, because both types exhibit similar tendencies, often while considering it important to mask or misrepresent their motives. Furthermore, true High Machs (as opposed to sociopaths) tend to take consequences very seriously, and when dedicated to a course of action which may backfire, it is usually because the potential consequences have been weighed quite carefully and the High Mach is prepared to be responsible if blame cannot be deflected sufficiently.
Low Machs tend to take a more personal, empathic approach in their interaction with other people. They tend to be more trusting of others and more honest. They believe humans are essentially good natured. At the extreme, low Machs tend to be passive, submissive, highly agreeable, dependent and socially inept; in contrast with those who are more Machiavellian, they also tend to believe that everyone has a good and bad side.

Personality correlates of machiavellianism: v. machiavellianism, extraversion and toughmindedness in business

Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between Machiavellianism and a preference for business occupations. The present study tested the hypothesis that this Machiavellian-business connection is mediated by other personality characteristics. Support was obtained for predictions that, compared to Non-Business High Machs, Business High Machs would (i) differ little on Neuroticism (low) or Pchoticism (high), but (ii) score significantly higher on Extraversion, as measured by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. The links between sociability (Extraversion), toughmindedness (Psychoticism) and skills in interpersonal manipulation (Machiavellianism) are discussed in terms of their complementary implications for effective business behaviour.

“Machiavellianism” and frontal dysfunction: Evidence from Parkinson’s disease

A framework exploring the effects of the Machiavellian disposition on the relationship between motivation and influence tactics

Machiavelli’s (1513/1902) work The Prince provided the basis of the Machiavellian personality type coined by Christie and Geis (1970). The traditional Machiavellian perspective advocates that the leader’s main goal is to be in power at all costs, whereby the end justifies the means as long as power is retained.

The Machiavellian personality type has been researched extensively. Initial research found individuals who were strong in the Machiavellian disposition to be controlling, manipulative, and ruthless (Christie & Geis, 1970). However, recent research has shown that individuals higher in the Machiavellian disposition are more flexible in their choices of influence tactics than individuals lower in the Machiavellian disposition (Grams & Rogers, 1989), and are more likely to exhibit self-monitoring behaviors (Snyder, 1974). The Machiavellian personality has been positively correlated with certain types of planning for communication in interpersonal situations, indicating that high Machiavellians give thought to how to influence others (Allen, 1990).

Those who score high on a Machiavellian assessment instrument would be more flexible in choosing influence tactics most likely to lead to follower compliance (Carpenter, 1990). Those scoring low on a Machiavellian assessment would be less likely to strategically alter their behavior. Another factor contributing to the high Machiavellian’s flexibility of behavior might be the ability to use self-monitoring to read and use environmental cues to determine behavior. Research has shown a strong relationship between Machiavellianism and self-monitoring (Leone, 1994; Snyder, 1974).

Under the situational model, a high Machiavellian disposition would affect the relationship between an individual’s motivation source and influence tactic choice, because he or she would be able to alter behavior according to the situation. By contrast, the dispositional model indicates that the low Machiavellian is less likely to alter behavior. Therefore, the situation does not become a factor in that individual’s influence behavior, demonstrating again that the individual’s motivation source has a direct relationship with his or her influence tactic choice.

Machiavellianism in Initial and Repeated Influence Attempts

Machiavellians display superb negotiation skills, and their ability to influence is impressive (Christie & Geis, 1970). Kets de Vries and Miller (1985) related narcissism to the Machiavellian personality when they described the self-deceptive variety of narcissism. Narcissistic individuals were said to display a lack of empathy and fear of failure and were considered “ideal-hungry,” preoccupied with their own needs, and strongly desirous of being loved, as well as having a transactional/instrumental orientation.

Grams and Rogers (1989) examined influence tactics and personality characteristics and found that the choice of influence tactic differs dramatically according to whether a person is high or low in the Machiavellian disposition. Individuals with a high Machiavellian disposition are more motivated to succeed, more assertive, and less manipulative. Additionally, resistance from the target changes the leader’s influence strategy. Those high in the Machiavellian disposition prefer to use indirect (emotion) and non-rational (reward) persuasion techniques. High Machiavellians display positive emotional techniques (flattery, friendliness) that aid in their influence attempts. Individuals high in Machiavellianism want to succeed by using the least obtrusive means possible but are willing to resort to stronger or harder tactics if necessary.

Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism

Relations of the “Dark Triad” personality traits—Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and Narcissism—with the variables of the Five-Factor Model and the HEXACO model of personality structure

Why women really do love self-obsessed psychopaths

The dark triad of traits are the self-obsession of narcissism, the impulsive, thrill-seeking and callous behaviour of psychopaths and the deceitful and exploitative nature of Machiavellianism. “We have some evidence these traits may represent a successful evolutionary strategy,” Dr Jonason told New Scientist magazine.

It’s all in the behavioural-genetics

Why the brain follows the rules?

By Caroline Zink

People are incredibly social beings, and we rely heavily on our interactions with others to thrive, and even survive, in the world. To avoid chaos in these interactions, humans create social norms. These rules and regulations establish appropriate and acceptable ways for us to act and respond to each other. For instance, when waiting in line, we expect people also to wait their turn. As a result, we get upset when someone decides to cut in line: they violated a social norm.

But how are social norms maintained?  And what makes us comply with social norms? Primarily, the answer is that, if we don’t follow the rules, we might get in trouble. Numerous studies demonstrate that, when the threat of punishment is removed, people tend to disregard social norms. The neat and orderly line disintegrates.

It remains unclear, however, how the brain processes the threat of punishment when deciding whether or not to comply with a social norm. A recent study conducted by neuroscientist Manfred Spitzer and his colleagues at the University of Ulm in Germany and the University of Zurich in Switzerland tried to shed light on this mystery. The researchers put 24 healthy male students in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner to see what parts of the brain were activated during a two-person social exchange with real monetary stakes.

In this game, a research participant (“Person A”) was given money, and had to decide how much he wanted to give to another person (“Person B”) and how much he wanted to keep. In one variation of the game—the “punishment threat condition”—Person B could punish Person A if he or she believed that Person A had divided the money unfairly, or violated the “fairness social norm.” In another situation, there was no punishment threat and Person A could act freely without worrying about the consequences. The researchers sought to find out how much more money Person A would give to Person B under the threat of punishment, and what brain circuits are associated with this change in behavior.

Not surprisingly, the threat of punishment made people act more fairly. In the “punishment threat condition” people split the money close to equally. However, when Person B had no recourse, the people given the money acted very differently and gave away, on average, less than 10 percent of the money.

One of the interesting things about social norm compliance, however, is that there is tremendous individual variation. Some people would never cut in line or act unfairly, whereas others don’t think twice about it. Using a questionnaire, the researchers measured each participant’s “Machiavellism,” a combination of selfishness and opportunism, which is often used to describe someone’s tendency to manipulate other people for personal gain. Sure enough, the people with high Machiavellism scores gave less money away when there was no punishment threat and were best at avoiding punishment when the threat of punishment was present. Therefore, these individuals earned the most money overall.

When the researchers looked at the brain activity of people playing this simple game, they found a consistent pattern. One region in the frontal lobes, the orbitofrontal cortex, seemed to be responsible for evaluating the potential for punishment. In other words, it figured out whether or not violating the social norm would get us in trouble. A second brain region, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, was responsible for inhibiting the natural tendency to keep most of the money (this would be the greedy thing to do) if this action might lead to future punishment. Interestingly, these brain areas only were activated when the threat of punishment came from a real person, and not a computer that was programmed to act like a real person.

Furthermore, just as Machiavellism personality traits influenced how people behave, these traits also relate to what is happening in the brain. The orbitofrontal cortex was most activated in the more self-interested, opportunistic people. This finding makes sense because, if the orbitofrontal cortex is helping people detect and evaluate threats, then it should be most active in people who are worried about getting punished. This study can also help us understand what might be happening in the brains of people who struggle to follow social norms, which is what happens in mental illnesses such as psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder.

Of course, many different variables not studied in this experiment can also affect social norm compliance. Even a norm as seemingly straightforward as “fairness” can get pretty complicated pretty quickly. The social norm of fairness, after all, does not always mean an equal distribution of goods. Someone may deserve more based on effort, talent or simply the feeling of entitlement that comes from social status. For instance, one could argue that in the non-punishment situation, Person A was put in a position of power, because he or she was given complete control of the money. On the other hand, when Person B is given the right to punish Person A, Person B is now put in a superior position of power. And accordingly, the social norm for Person A changes: it is no longer acceptable for him to keep all the money for himself. This adjustment suggests that the brain activity evident in the Spitzer study could, in part, be related to changes in power and status between the punishment and non-punishment condition. In fact, in a recent study, we found that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was more activated when interacting with a person who is in superior social position.

 Damage to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in humans has been associated with disinhibited or socially inappropriate behaviour and emotional changes. Some of the changes may be related to difficulty in responding correctly to rewards and punishers, in that these patients have difficulty in learning to correct their choice of a visual stimulus when it is no longer associated with reward. We extend this fundamental approach by investigating the relationship between frontal dysfunction and impulsive behaviour, the behavioural, emotional and personality changes seen in patients with prefrontal cortex damage, and thus in addition illuminate the cognitive and biological processes that are impaired in impulsive people. OFC patients (n = 23) performed more impulsively on both self-report and cognitive/behavioural tests of impulsivity, reported more inappropriate ‘frontal’ behaviours, and performed worse on a stimulus-reinforcement association reversal task, than non-OFC prefrontal cortex lesion control (n = 20) and normal control (n = 39) participants. Further, OFC patients experienced more subjective anger than non-OFC and normal participants, and less subjective happiness than normals; and had a faster subjective sense of time (overestimated and underproduced time intervals) than normal controls, while non-OFC patients did not differ from normals. Finally, both OFC and non-OFC patients were less open to experience than normal participants. There were no differences between OFC patients, non-OFC lesion patients and normal controls on all other personality traits, most notably extraversion. In a spatial working memory task, the non-OFC group, most of whom had dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lesions, were impaired in that they repeatedly returned to previously chosen empty locations (‘within errors’), whereas OFC patients were not impaired on this measure. Thus there is a dissociation between the effects of OFC damage which does not affect this measure of spatial working memory but does affect impulsive and inappropriate behaviour, reversal, personality, time perception and emotion; and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex damage which does affect this measure of spatial working memory, but not impulsive and inappropriate behaviour, reversal, personality, time perception and emotion. The effects of OFC damage on impulsive and related behaviours described here have implications for understanding impulsive behaviour.

Orbitofrontal Cortex and Social Behavior: Integrating Self-monitoring and Emotion–Cognition Interactions

By Jennifer S. Beer, Oliver P. John, Donatella Scabini and Robert T. Knight

The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in social behavior remains a puzzle. Various theories of the social functions of the orbitofrontalcortex focus on the role of this area in either emotional processing or its involvement in onlinemonitoring of behavior (i.e., self-monitoring). The present research attempts to integrate these two theories by examining whether improving the self-monitoring of patients with orbitofrontaldamage is associated with the generation of emotions needed to guide interpersonal behavior. Patients with orbitofrontal damage, patients with lateral prefrontal damage, and healthy controls took part in an interpersonal task. After completing the task, participants’ self-monitoring was increased by showing them a videotape of their task performance. In comparison to healthy controls and patients with lateral prefrontal damage, orbitofrontaldamage was associated with objectively inappropriate social behavior. Although patients with orbitofrontaldamage were aware of social norms of intimacy, they were unaware that their task performance violated these norms. The embarrassment typically associated with inappropriate social behavior was elicited in these patients only after their self-monitoring increased from viewing their videotaped performance. These findings suggest that damage to the orbitofrontalcortex impairs self-insight that may preclude the generation of helpful emotional information. The results highlight the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in the interplay of self-monitoring and emotional processing and suggest avenues for neurorehabilitation of patients with social deficits subsequent to orbitofrontal damage.


Another trip hop  band i like a lot (they did some good stuff with Massive Attack)

Portishead – Mysterons


Inside your pretending
Crimes have been swept aside
Somewhere where they can forget

Divine upper reaches
Still holding on
This ocean will not be grasped
All for nothing

Did you really want

Refuse to surrender
Strung out until ripped apart
Who dares, dares to condemn
All for nothing

Did you really want




July 17, 2008 Posted by | brain, mind, neurology, neuroscience, Politics, psychology, Science | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

” If liberty means anything at all, it means the right to tell people what they do not want to hear. “(G. Orwell)

Meditatio (Ezra Pound)

When I carefully consider the curious habits of dogs
I am compelled to conclude
That man is the superior animal.

When I consider the curious habits of man
I confess, my friend, I am puzzled.

Slave Market with Disappearing Bust of Voltaire, 1940 (Salvador Dali)

The current situation we are traped into can not be better explained than with this Dali’s picture. The whole drama about coming recession, oil prices, problems in bank sector might be just illusion but with very real consequences for ordinary people. Although we can hear and see in media just upper layer of this phenomena there are many different layers behind…some of them hardly visible, some of them distorted or invisible on a first sight. (The credit crisis explained in black and white; US faces global funding crisis, warns Merrill Lynch). Another very good article with good comments Morgan Stanley warns of ‘catastrophic event’ as ECB fights Federal Reserve.

See bellow two must see documentaries which give insight into the roots of the current problems. Nothing just happens; every event has it own cycle with some visible icebergs on a surface. Money masters documentary is a bit old but never so accurate than today. It gives clear geneses of economical problems and its effects on people who are “slaves” in the whole story.

The power of corporate media shows how this optical illusion for ordinary people is done. The technology for mass deception.

Although this two documentaries are must for financial and media experts they are much more important to be seen by all people to understand why what we see is not what we get.

The Money Masters

“The powers of financial capitalism had a far-reaching plan, nothing less than to create a world system of financial control in private hands able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole…Their secret is that they have annexed from governments, monarchies, and republics the power to create the world’s money…” THE MONEY MASTERS is a 3 1/2 hour non-fiction, historical documentary that traces the origins of the political power structure that rules our nation and the world today. The modern political power structure has its roots in the hidden manipulation and accumulation of gold and other forms of money. The development of fractional reserve banking practices in the 17th century brought to a cunning sophistication the secret techniques initially used by goldsmiths fraudulently to accumulate wealth. With the formation of the privately-owned Bank of England in 1694, the yoke of economic slavery to a privately-owned “central” bank was first forced upon the backs of an entire nation, not removed but only made heavier with the passing of the three centuries to our day. Nation after nation, including America, has fallen prey to this cabal of international central bankers


He disapproved of American involvement in the war and tried to use his political contacts in Washington D.C. to prevent it. He spoke on Italian radio and gave a series of talks on cultural matters. Pound believed that economics was the core issue at hand. Specifically, his talks were largely about usury and the notion that representative democracy has been usurped by bankers’ infiltration of governments through the existence of central banks, which made governments pay interest to private banks for the use of their own money. He maintained that the central bank’s ability to create money out of thin air allowed banking interests to buy up American and British media outlets to sway opinion in favor of the war and the banks. Pound was not the first prominent American to make this assertion; for example New York City Mayor John Hylan had publicly said the same thing back in 1922 when he said “these international bankers control the majority of the magazines and newspapers in this country.” Pound believed that economic freedom was a prerequisite for a free country. Inevitably, he touched on political matters, and incorporated antisemitism into his denunciations of the war.

 Pound believed that the bankers in charge of the Federal Reserve and their associates in the Bank of England were responsible for getting the United States into both World Wars, in an effort to drive up government debt beyond sustainable levels (the national debt indeed rose astronomically because of the wars). The book, Secrets Of The Federal Reserve, charges that bankers hide behind the screen of the central banks and pull political strings to drive countries into the war, creating immense profits for themselves as the principal beneficiaries of wartime debt. Pound advocated an abandonment of the current system of money being created by private bankers. He favored government issued currency with no interest to pay, preventing the need for an income tax and national debt, much like the system used by the Pennsylvania Colony from 1723 to 1764. Pound argued that his views on money aligned with those of Thomas Jefferson, as well as with Benjamin Franklin’s Colonial Scrip.

 The Power of Corporate Media – Orwell rolls in his grave

Orwell Rolls in His Grave is a 2004 documentary film written and directed by Robert Kane Pappas. It examines the current and past relationships between the media, the US government and corporations, analyzing the possible consequences of the concentration of media ownership. Making references to George Orwell’s novel 1984, the film argues that reality has met and in some ways exceeded Orwell’s expectations about a society dominated by thought control, which is made possible by the media. According to the film, the mass media no longer report news, but manage them, deciding what makes the headlines and what is conveniently ignored, thus ultimately defining the framework upon which most other issues are discussed by the society.

July 16, 2008 Posted by | conspiracy, Documentary, mind, Movies, Poems, Politics, psychology | , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Massive Attack

Was on Massive Attack’s concert today. And was massively attacked. Great concert not only because of their music (i like very much from their beginnings) and visual effects but because their concert had a message. Clear message. As there were a lot of meaningful words rolling on a big screen behind about war, all articles for impeachment of J.W. Bush, prisoners without a trial, quotes about freedom and democracy (No man is above the law and no man below it) the whole message can be summed up: “Fear is not a natural state of civilized people.”(Aung San Suv Kyi)” People have to be aware what is going on, have to think, have to be critical toward democracy preachers otherwise other will think instead of them. Fear paralyses, fear change brain’s gray matter, puts you into inferior position,…

Not talking about normal human response on adrenalin rush; i am talking about damaging effect of constant, invisible, omnipotently present fear without a real bases, which we are hearing about through media every day. Either terrorism or global warming or damaging diseases or god… They might attack you at the moment you expect the least, so be rather afraid. Very afraid. Constant fear makes you run instead of fight. (see 2. The Power of Nightmares, subtitled The Rise of the Politics of Fear of Adam Curtis)

There is a lot of them who are more than willing to comfort you but for some return. Like exchange of true freedom for fake freedom.  Like putting your worries into their hands to take care of them. As quote from Massive Attack’s big screen says: “Freedom is never free.” 

Like this guys who have the power to rise the awareness among masses accompanied with great music. It’s a food for emotions and mind.

Watched lately documentary Secret rulers of the world  and if the half of what they’re saying is true, than this world is scary place for a living. But if people don’t know they take everything as granted.

Reminded me on very good Paul Auster ‘s book In The Century of last Thing. A world, narrowed to pure survival, trapped into corrupted system which imprisoned people. It’s a good portrait of devastation of either outher or inner person’s world. Once you are within the system, the possibility to escape is limited almost to zero.  The only thought to keep you alive is that there , outside this system is another world, better one, the one you still keep in your memories. Or the one your desperate hope has built.

In In the Country of Last Things Paul Auster offers a haunting picture of a devastated world – futuristic world – but one which chillingly shadows our own.Faber and Faber.

And the movie with the same title is in postproduction phase now.


one of my fav of MA




I’m a little curious of you in crowded scenes
And how serene your friends and fiends
We flew and strolled as two eliminated gently
Why don’t you close your eyes and reinvent me

[Daddy G]

You know you’ve got that heart made of stone
You should have let me know
You could have let me know


We’ll go ’till morning comes
And traffic grows
And windows hum

[Daddy G]

Speding all week with your friends
Give me evenings and weekends
Evenings and weekends


I could be yours
We can unwind
All these have flaws
All these have flaws

You’d agree it’s a typical high
You fly as you watch your name go by
And once the name goes by
Not thicker than water nor thicker than mud
And the eight k thuds it does

Sunset so thickly
Let’s make it quiet and quickly
Don’t frown
It taste’s better on the way back down

I could be yours
We can unwind
All these have flaws
All these have flaws
All these have flaws
Will lead to mine

We can unwind
All these have flaws
All these have flaws
Will lead to mine
Will see to
All these have flaws
All these have flaws
Will see to
All these have flaws
Will lead to mine
We can unwind all our flaws
We can unwind all our flaws
Video from the concert

July 11, 2008 Posted by | books, brain, conspiracy, Daily bites, Documentary, mind, Music, neuroscience, Politics, psychology | , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment